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War on Terrorism (Iraq & Afghanistan)

In the aftermath of the devistating terrorist attacks in New York and Washington D.C., the United States embared on a "War on Terrorism," dubbed OPERATION Infinate Justice.

Air Defense Mission -- Operation Noble Eagle
Before 2001, 1st Air Force was charged with keeping an eye on the nation’s borders, usually looking for threats in the form of Russian aircraft skirting too close for comfort to the mainland. In those few hours, the command’s mission went from looking outward to looking inward. Now 1st Air Force watches the nation’s skies for the threat from within. Operation Noble Eagle was born.

Air Force Changes Standard Deployment from 90 to 120 Days
Most Airmen scheduled to deploy in upcoming air and space expeditionary force packages will see their orders expand from 90 to 120 days.The change in deployment length will begin with AEF cycle 5 in September (2004).

Air Force Snipers in Iraq
They’re in a unique unit, the only one in the Air Force. The group’s job is to be the first to land at a bare base to establish airfield and aerial port operations — pronto. The 786th Expeditionary Security Forces Squadron, where Air Force Snipers work, provides the security. The cops keep airmen safe as they land, unload and launch aircraft around the clock.

Air Force Stop Loss
The assistant secretary of the Air Force for manpower and reserve affairs has authorized the use of Stop-Loss to retain specific skills needed to meet national security objectives. Effective May 2, (2003) 43 officer and 56 enlisted specialties will be affected by Stop-Loss.

Air Force Stop Loss Center
Latest information on the Air Force Stop Loss Program, the program which restricts certain jobs from separating or retiring during the "war on terrorism."

Airline Tickets (Free) For Wounded/Sick Military Heros
Although the Defense Department provides a travel entitlement for service members and their families in serious medical emergencies, the Fisher House Foundation is hoping to help those service members and families not covered under the rule.

All Volunteer Force - Proven
The all-volunteer force took nearly a generation to come to fruition, but has since proved its worth in combat. Thirty years after then-Defense Secretary Melvin R. Laird established the all- volunteer force, some politicians are again calling for resumption of a military draft. Defense leaders are crying foul; they don't want it, and they don't need it.

Anthrax 101
Well written article, explaining the basics of Anthrax.

Anthrax Vaccinations Stop
The Defense Department will stop anthrax vaccinations until the legal situation around a recent court decision is resolved, DoD officials said. Defense officials and lawyers with the Justice Department are examining a decision handed down by a federal judge in Washington Dec. 22 that ordered DoD to stop anthrax vaccinations for U.S. service members without their consent.

APO Zip Codes for Iraq
The U.S. Military Postal Service has assigned new geographic zip codes for units and personnel serving in Iraq. The intent of the new zip codes is to decrease the time it takes for service members and civilian employees to receive their mail, officials said, as well as to improve postal service throughout Iraq.

Are You Going to be Drafted?
In the wake of the terrorist attacks, many have been wondering if there will be a military draft.What happens during a draft? Who is likely to be drafted? How likely is a draft? Do we really need a draft?

Army Announces Iraq Deployment Schedule
Gen. Jack Keane (acting Army Chief of Staff) said that most units deploying to Iraq over the next few months can expect stays of up to one year when he announced the unit rotation schedule July 23 (2003).

Army CENTCOM Re-Enlistment Bonus
Soldiers who re-enlist in the Central Command area of responsibility (Iraq, Kuwait, Afghanistan) this fiscal year (FY 2004) are now eligible for a lump-sum bonus of about $5,000 and the bonus is also retroactive for Soldiers who re-enlisted from Oct. 1 until now.

Army Continues IRR Recall
More than 1,100 Soldiers in the Individual Ready Reserve have reported to duty since the Army received its mobilization authority four months ago. The IRR consists of military members who have been discharged from active duty or the active Guard/Reserves but still have a commitment to the military.

Army Deploment Lengths
All soldiers in the U.S. Central Command area of operations will serve 15-month tours in the region beginning immediately, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates announced on April 11, 2007.

Army Deployment Lengths
Secretary of Defense Robert Gates told reporters that he is "counting on" going back to 12-month deployments for Army troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, before the end of 2008.

Army Implements New Stop-Loss
Effective on November 13, 2003, the Army has implemented a "Stop-Loss" for active duty members that are assigned to units that are currently deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan, and those active duty units who are scheduled to deploy to Iraq or Afghanistan during the next rotation period.

Army Stop-Loss (Effective Jun 04)
The Army has announced a new stoploss, effective in June 2004.

Army Stop-Loss Policy
Soldiers affected by Stop-Loss will now be allowed to request voluntary separation from the Army under a new policy released Sept. 5 (2002).

Army to Recall Thousands of Individual Ready Reservists
The Army will call up 5,600 soldiers in the Individual Ready Reserve beginning July 6, Army officials announced on June 30th (2004). Everyone who joins the military incurs minimum eight year service obligation. So, if a soldier serves for four years on active duty, he or she is subject to recall to active duty for four more years. This status is known as Individual Ready Reserves, or IRR.

Afghanistan Invasion -- 4 Year Anniversary
Four years ago, America launched its counterattack against terrorism, hammering terrorist targets in Afghanistan and ushering in Operation Enduring Freedom and the global war on terror.

A Review of 2007 and the War on Terrorism
Before the year began, few could have predicted the gains made in Iraq in 2007. Just 10 days into the year, President Bush had replaced his commander in Iraq, announced a “surge” of U.S. forces, and admitted mistakes in prosecuting the war. Toward the end of the year, violence had fallen markedly and U.S. troop deaths — and other indicators — were at two-year lows.

Best Phone Cards for Iraq, Afghanistan, and Kuwait
Looking to buy a prepaid phone card for a servicemember deployed to Southwest Asia, but confused about which one to buy? Take comfort in knowing you're not alone. With so many competing companies offering different calling cards, picking the best one can be a tough call.

Blood Donations
The U.S. military always needs blood in war zones and now, more than ever, it is depending on troops at stateside bases to donate. That is because troops that deploy “down range” cannot donate blood for one year after they return home.

Boarding Parties
Crew members aboard USS Chosin (CG 65) have learned that being prepared for anything can make the job a bit easier. When the words, 'Man the boat deck!' boom throughout the ship, the maritime interception operation (MIO) team gets set.

Bringing Troops Home Safely
The sun had just set as the aircraft preflight checks ended. The tower reported: “cleared for take off.” The four engines of the vintage 1962 C-130E Hercules roared as the transport plane rumbled down the runway on its way to Iraq to deliver and pick up passengers and cargo.

BX in War Zones
Even in war zones, you'll find civilian employees of the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES). Volunteer employees deploy to combat zones to open site exchanges to bring servicemembers a touch of home.

Calling Home from Deployment
AT&T has announced plans to construct additional calling centers in seven forward-deployed camps and bases in Kuwait to nearly triple the number of payphones available for Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines to use to call loved ones back home.

Chemical Warfare Defense
Many nations have a considerable variety of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents and the means to deliver them. Here's how the United States Military protects against chemical and biological attacks.

Coalition Forces Kill Top Terrorist in Iraq
Jordanian terrorist leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi died in an air strike north of Baghdad yesterday evening, U.S. officials have confirmed. Army Gen. George W. Casey Jr., commander of Multinational Force Iraq, announced Zarqawi's death during a press conference with Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Zalmay Khalilzad on 8 June (2006).

Coast Guard and the War on Terrorism
The U.S. Coast Guard is an active player in the war on terror, both in Southwest Asia and on the home front. The "fifth armed service" is making its largest commitment to port- security operations since World War II. At the same time, the Coast Guard has deployed its largest contingent of Coast Guard members and assets overseas since the Vietnam conflict, in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Combat Zone Shopping
Today, there are at least 30 post exchanges/base exchanges in Iraq and 52 throughout Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. In addition to these stores, AAFES supports troops in isolated and hostile areas, with some 80 unit-run Imprest Fund stores and mobile operations called PX Rodeos.

Defend America
News from the Department of Defense about the War on Terrorism and our deployed troops.

Deployed Forces
This is a "best available" listing of US forces deployed to the Central Command AOR for Southwest Asia and for US forces deployed to European Command's locations in Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria. It does not include forces deployed exclusively for operations in Central Asia though it may at times list units that are involved in both Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom.

Deployed Forces in Iraq to Reduce
Two U.S. brigades will not deploy to Iraq as originally planned, the commander of coalition forces in Iraq said here on 23 December, 2005. This will bring the number of forces deployed to Iraq from about 138,000 to about 130,000.

Deploying Forces
This is a best available listing of the units that have either begun deploying to Southwest Asia, have received a deployment order and have not begun to transit, or have been Alerted to the possibility of a deployment. The list is based primarily off of open-source information gathered from the news media and the military.

The Army’s assignments branch is reaching out to soldiers who have not deployed to combat in an effort to take some of the strain off of those who have deployed more than once.

Deployment Lengths
The service chiefs continue to examine how long servicemembers should serve in Iraq, but for now they are satisfied the tour lengths are about right. Iraq tour lengths are different among the services. Airmen generally are deployed for four months. Marines and sailors serve about seven months. Soldiers generally spend a year with "boots on -the ground."

Deployment Migranes
A study has been conducted to assess the prevalence, impact and treatment of Migraine attacks among U.S. soldiers serving in combat operations in Iraq. The results of this study are not encouraging and show that the Army needs to do more to address the medical needs of our soldiers.

Deployment News
Latest news articles about the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces.

Deployment Rates - Air Force Enlisted
Average number of days deployed from the time period of September 11, 2001 to 1 October 2003 for most Air Force enlisted AFSCs (jobs).

Deployment Rates for Iraq and Afghanistan
Turn on any nighly news program, and you'll hear that about 150,000 U.S. Military troops are currently serving in Iraq. While Afghanistan doesn't make the news as much, between 15,000 and 18,000 are currently serving there.So, what are your chances of being deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan? The Department of Defense recently released deployment data, from 11 December 2001, to 31 October 2004 for these two combat areas.

Doggles for Military Working Dogs
The military police motto "of the troops and for the troops" has been taken to heart by some American citizens concerned for the Army's four-legged troops: the military working dogs. Linda Cunningham from Hillsdale, MI, has organized a program to donate "Doggles," goggles which protect the dogs from the devistating sands of Iraq and Afghanistan, for deployed military working dogs

With terrorist attacks like that against USS Cole (DDG 67) in October 2000 still a very real possibility, the U.S. Navy has a new ally in the global war on terrorism – the Mk 6 anti-swimmer dolphin system.

Drug Testing for Deployed Troops
The Defense Department has increased drug testing for troops stationed in the U.S. Central Command area of operations (Iraq and Afghanistan).

Enduring Freedom - Why a Higher Civ. Casualty Rate?
Summarizes the available data on civilian bombing casualties during the Afghanistan war. It finds that the air campaign directly claimed 1000-1300 civilians lives and asks, Why was the rate higher than in the 1999 Balkans war? It answers by examining mission objectives, the nature of the enemy, bombing methods, and technical features of the US weapons mix.

Enduring Freedom Email Group
Enduring Freedom offers an email group that individuals can join. Servicemembers can join this group to receive emails of support from individuals all over the world. Non-servicemembers can join this group to help provide emails of support to military servicemembers.

Executive Order 13269 -- Expedited Citizenship
Executive Order issued by President Bush on July 3, 2002, authorizing expedited citizenship for members on active duty

Extra Pay for Some Soldiers in Iraq & Afghanistan
About 1,500 Soldiers are eligible to receive an extra $1,000 a month for being involuntarily extended in Iraq and Afghanistan. Officials from the Army and the Office of the Secretary of Defense identified 12 units, mainly from Germany, where Soldiers will receive an incentive package if they meet certain requirements.

Faces of the Fallen
“Faces of the Fallen,” an exhibition that opened March 22 at the Women in Military Service to America Memorial at Arlington Cemetary, features more than 1,300 portraits of servicemen and women who have died in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The portraits were done from photos, and more than 200 artists participated in this “labor of love.”

Family Member Travel
New benefits added to the per diem regulations in October 2003 allow the military to provide financial assistance for up to two non-military family members who are traveling to be with a hospitalized military member.

Female Soldiers -- Fighting and Dying
Daughters, wives and mothers are vying for adventure and the chance to serve their country at increasing rates. Through the course of liberating Iraq, female Soldiers have conducted air missions, kicked down doors, disarmed mines and shed their own blood. Sixteen female Soldiers have died in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Freedom Calls
A non-profit organization is building a communications network dedicated to keeping deployed troops in touch with family back home, all at no cost to the troops or their families. Freedom Calls Foundation has helped military parents in Iraq attend graduations and meet new children. It has even allowed a couple get married, despite the fact that he was in Colorado and she was in Iraq.

Guantanamo Bay Deployments
This is not your typical deployment location in the war on terror. Troops deployed to Guantanamo get to scuba dive in their off time and have an assortment of restaurants and bars to unwind in at the end of long days spent guarding enemy combatants. The troops who manage the detention facility here belong to Joint Task Force Guantanamo. They're deployed for varying tour lengths from all services, both active and reserve components.

Guard/Reserve Mobilized
Cumulative roster of National Guard and Miliary Reserve mobilized in support of Iraq and the "War on Terrosim."

Help a Troop Phone Home
The Department of Defense has announced that any American can now help troops in contingency operations call home. The Defense Department has authorized the Armed Services Exchanges to sell prepaid calling cards to any individual or organization that wishes to purchase cards for troops who are deployed.

Homeland Defense Force
The United States needs a new, revitalized military force, at least million strong. It should be under the control of state governors, made up largely of volunteers, but with paid cadre, and would have an exclusive role of homeland defense. Special Guest Article by Jimmy Horn.

Immiment Danger & Hardship Pay Changes
DoD has expanded the areas in which service members are eligible for imminent danger pay and hardship duty pay, effective in October 2001.

International Policy Institute for Counterterrorism
News, articles, and information about international terrorism incidents.

Iraq Attacks Down
Attacks have dropped in Baghdad to levels seen in 2005.

IRR Activation Moves Slowly
Only about 1,100 Reservists, of the 5,600 recalled have transitioned back to active duty as a part of an Individual Ready Reserve callup that started in August 2004.

Jessica Lynch Goes Home with Bronze Star
Former prisoner of war Pfc. Jessica Lynch waved goodbye July 22 (2003) to the medical staff that had treated her for more than three months as she boarded an Army Black Hawk helicopter at Walter Reed's Forest Glen annex.

Khobar Towers
On June 25, 1996, terrorists bomb the Khobar Towers near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, shortly before 10 p.m. local time, killing 19 Air Force personnel and injuring some 300 other Americans.

Life in the Sand Pit
We all know that keeping our weapon clean in the Combat Zone is crucial as our life could depend on it. It’s an even more arduous challenge in the desert with the blowing dust and sand. Here is a very easy and efficient weapon cleaning technique to keep your weapon clean and happy in the sand.

LT Smash
Live from the Sandbox. News and tidbits from the Gulf.

Mail to/from Iraq to Speed Up
The Military Postal Service Agency has received a number of complaints about the speed of mail deliveries to and from Iraq. Military members and family members have claimed that mail to and from Iraq can sometimes take up to one month. The officials are aware of the problems and expect changes to ease some stumbling blocks.

Marines to Recall IRR Members
President Bush has authorized the Marine Corps to call up Marines from the service's Individual Ready Reserve, which may mean a return to duty for some recently discharged veterans. President Bush authorized the Marine Corps to recall Marines from the IRR on July 26. At present, only the Army has been involuntarily activating IRR members.

Military Spouses Often Parent Solo
Outstanding article about single-parenting directed at military spouses when the servicemember is deployed. From the About.com Guide to Single Parenting.

Military Tribunals
Copy of the military order issued by President Bush on 13 November 2001, allowing terrorists to be tried by Military Tribunal.

Most Army Units Not Ready to Deploy
According to senior military officials, up to two-thirds of Army active duty and reserve units are not combat-ready. Army officials emphasize that units currently deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan and other areas are equipped, trained and ready. The problem resides with the units located in the states, who are threatened with equipment shortfalls and a shortage of deployment eligible soldiers.

New this year to the MRE menu board are pot roast with vegetables, barbecue pork ribs and vegetable manicotti. New side dishes are hearty New England clam chowder and a carbohydrate-fortified applesauce.

National Defense Service Medal for Enduring Freedom
The National Defense Service Medal has now been authorized for wear for servicments on active dtuy on or after Sept. 11, 2001.

National Guard Deployments
It is different when a National Guard unit deploys. The "total force" includes active duty and reserve component service members. And while the missions that like units go on are identical, there are differences in the way active duty and reserve components deploy.

National Guard's First Female KIA
The National Guard is mourning its first female Soldier ever to be killed in action. Spc. Michelle Witmer, a military police specialist from the Wisconsin Army National Guard, died in Iraq April 9. Witmer, 20, was killed in Baghdad by an improvised explosive device and small arms attack, according to an April 12 casualty report from the Department of Defense.

Number of Guard/Reserve Deployed
Number of National Guard and Military Reserve members deployed for the War on Terrorism.

Office Troops in Combat Zones
Combat is not just for "combat arms" anymore. Many soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines who have "office jobs" in the states are finding themselves in the middle of combat.

Operation I CAN
"OPERATION I CAN” is not just another clever Army acronym; it’s short for “Iraqi Children Assistance Network.” I CAN connects thousands of Iraqi children to people throughout the world who donate school supplies. Thanks to deployed Soldiers, these supplies reach schools in villages and cities throughout Iraq.

Operation Special Delivery
Provides free Labor Doula (Child Birth) Support to pregnant wives of the U.S. Military members that taking part in Operation Enduring Freedom. Also provides, free Labor Doula Support to the pregnant wives of the U.S. Military members that have become widowed as a direct result of September 11th or Operation Enduring Freedom.

Operation TeddyCare
It's not easy being a kid whose mom or dad is deployed overseas to a combat zone. It can be confusing and lonely, and sometimes, downright scary. That's why a California-based nonprofit group wants to put into every affected military child's hands that quintessentially American yet internationally understood symbol of comfort and friendship: the teddy bear.

Out of Iraq by 2011
The Iraqi Parliament has passed a US-backed security agreement and a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA), which calls for the removal of all US troops from Iraq by December 31, 2011. The agreement also calls for the removal of US Forces from all Iraqi cities, towns, and villages no later than June 30, 2009.

Overseas Mailing Deadlines for Holidays
The dates for mailing items to and from overseas locations in time for the holidays are fast approaching, and Military Postal Service Agency officials have suggestions for ensuring packages and letters arrive on time.

Pentagon Attack
Latest news about the terrorist attack on the Pentagon.

Pentagon Photos
Photos in the aftermath of the attack on the Pentagon.

Project America Foundation
Their mission is to continue patriotic behavior by strengthening our bond through educating the American people on the need for preserving our National Security and our National Pride. One of their goals is to financially help military families.

R & R Leave for Troops in Iraq
Service members and Defense Department civilians on 12-month orders in Iraq and Jordan supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom now have a rest and recuperation leave program that will allow them to take up to 15 days, excluding travel time, to visit family or friends in the United States or Europe.

R&R Leave Program Expands
Soldiers coming home on rest and recuperation leave will now have their travel expenses covered to the airport closest to their R&R destination. he policy change came with the Dec. 19 (2003) approval to fund the onward travel program by Charles Abell, principal deputy, under secretary of defense for Personnel & Readiness.

Reader views - Should we get out of Iraq?
The U.S. plans to withdraw all military forces from Iraq by the end of 2011. Do you think this is a good idea, or should we stay until Iraq is completely stable?

Remembering 9/11
Never in a million years did Kara Gaines dream she would enlist in the military and follow in the footsteps of her retired Air Force father. That was until the senior airman with the 407th Expeditionary Communications Squadron here watched in horror as terrorists rammed three planes into some of the nation’s most-beloved symbols of democracy and freedom Sept. 11, 2001.

Repatriating Prisoners of War
Someone asked me the other day what happens when an American POW is returned to United States Control. Interesting question....

Service Flags are Back in Style
Rarely seen since World War II, family members of United States Military members are beginning to display United States Service Flags again to honor family members who are members of the United States Military, during the "War on Terrorism."

Soldiers’ Angels
Members of the Soldiers’ Angels make it their mission to help service members being treated for injuries suffered in Iraq and Afghanistan at the Army’s Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, as well as other military hospitals. They offer friendship, visits and donations ranging from clothes to backpacks.

State Department Counterterrorism
Official news, information, and policy on terrorism from the United States State Department.

Strange Victory
A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan war by Carl Conetta.

Suicide Rate (Combat Zones)
In 2003, 24 soldiers deployed to Kuwait and Iraq committed suicide — a rate of 17.3 per 100,000. The overall Army suicide rate during the same time period was 12.8 per 100,000 soldiers. This compares to the Army's rate of 12.2 for 2003 and 11.9 from 1995 to 2002.

Support Your Military Members
The anthrax threat has eliminated programs where people can send mail to 'any servicemember.' Don't fear, however. There are plenty of other ways you can show your support for members of the United States Military.

Terrorism Research Center
The Terrorism Research Center is dedicated to informing the public of the phenomena of terrorism and information warfare. The site features essays and thought pieces on current issues, as well as links to other terrorism documents, research and resources.

Terrorism Threat Assements
Background information and threat assessments on international terrorism.

Terrorism Updates
News and articles about terrorism and counter-terrorism.

The Cost of War
While Americans celebrate the birth of our Nation this week with fireworks and patriotic events, it's appropriate that we take a little time to reflect on the real costs of war. The Department of Defense has recently released updated casualty statistics for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq) and Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan).

Thousands Of Troops Qualify for R&R Air Travel Rebates
The Army has announced that more than 30,000 troops are eligible for retroactive reimbursement of out-of-pocket air travel costs paid in conjunction with rest and recuperation leave taken last year. The new policy affects about 32,000 service members who took R&R leave between Sept. 25, 2003, and Dec. 18, 2003, from duty in the Afghan or Iraqi theaters of operation.

Training the Iraqi Army
They eat together, live together and fight together every day through the backyards, farmlands and palm groves of the town of Al Jazeera near Al Habaniya, Iraq. The Dark Horse Marines of Military Transition Team 3rd Battalion, advise their Iraqi counterparts in the areas of intelligence, communications, fire support, logistics and infantry tactics.

Treats, not Troops Needed in Iraq
Boxes of treats and books, not more troops, is what some are saying soldiers deployed to Iraq need.

Troop Levels in Iraq to Increase
Shattering hopes that the U.S. Force levels deployed to Iraq would be reduced later this year, the Department of Defense has instead announced plans to increase force levels during the next rotation. 25,000 additional troops have been scheduled to deploy to Iraq and 3,500 members who have completed their one year tour have been informed that their tours have been extended for up to 120 days

Troop Reduction Expected after Iraqi Elections
The United States expects to reduce its troop numbers in Iraq by more than 17,000 following the Dec. 15 national elections, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said Dec. 8 (2005)

Truck Driving on the Front Lines
The front line of the war used to consist of chasing anti-Coalition forces through cities. The front line has since moved to the highways and supply routes and the Soldiers fighting on it are no longer exclusivley infantryman, but also truck drivers.

Update to Iraq/Afghanistan Deployment Plan
The secretary of defense has approved the alert notifications of 4,228 Army, 1,290 Navy and 2,381 Air Force reserve component personnel for the second rotation of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF-2). This brings the total Guard and Reserve personnel that have been alerted for OIF-2 to 66,531.

Video Messages to Deployed Service Members
Service members and their families can send video messages to loved ones deployed overseas free of charge, thanks to the United Service Organizations, and America OnLine, Inc.

War on Terrorism Medals
A presidential executive order signed Wednesday (March 12, 2003) authorizes the Department of Defense to create two new military medals for service in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT).

War Trophies
Servicemembers serving in Iraq and Afghanistan are prohibited from bringing back to the United States any items that were formerly in the possession of the enemy.

What You Should Know About the Iraq War
Iraq has been around for a long, long time. Throughout its long history, Iraq has been the center of the Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid and Abbasid empires, and part of the Achaemenid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid, Ottoman and British empires.

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