|Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)|
|ART. 51. VOTING AND RULINGS|
(a) Voting by members of a general or special court-martial on the findings and on the sentence, and by members of a court-martial without a military judge upon questions of challenge, shall be by secret written ballot. The junior member of the court shall count the votes. The count shall be checked by the president, who shall forthwith announce the result of the ballot to the members of the court.
(b) The military judge and, except for questions of challenge, the president of a court-martial without a military judge shall ruse upon all questions of law and all interlocutory questions arising during the proceedings. Any such ruling made by the military judge upon any question of lay or any interlocutory question other than the factual issue of mental responsibility of the accused, or by the president of a court-martial without a military judge upon any question of law other than a motion for a finding of not guilty, is final and constitutes the ruling of the court. However, the military judge or the president of a court-martial without a military judge may change his ruling at any time during the trial. Unless the ruling is final, if any member objects thereto, the court shall be cleared and closed and the question decided by a voice vote as provided in section 852 of this title (article 52), beginning with the junior in rank.
(c) Before a vote is taken of the findings, the military judge or the president of a court-martial without a military judge shall, in the presence of the accused and counsel, instruct the members of the court as to the elements of the offense and charge them--
(d) Subsections (a), (b), and (c) do not apply to a court-martial composed of a military judge only. The military judge of such a court- martial shall determine all questions of law and fact arising during the proceedings, and, if the accused is convicted, adjudge an appropriate sentence. The military judge of such a court-martial shall make a general finding and shall in addition on request find the facts specially. If an opinion or memorandum of decision is field, it will be sufficient if the findings of fact appear therein.
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