1. Careers
Send to a Friend via Email

Your suggestion is on its way!

An email with a link to:

http://usmilitary.about.com/library/milinfo/mcm/bl95.htm

was emailed to:

Thanks for sharing About.com with others!

Punitive Articles of the UCMJ
Article 95—Resistance, flight, breach of arrest, and escape
 More of this Feature
• Punitive Articles Menu
• Complete UCMJ
 Join the Discussion
Military Law
 Related Resources
• Court Martials
• Nonjudicial Punishment (Art 15)
• Administrative Discharges
• Military Lawyers
• Manual for Courts Martial (MCM)
 
 From Other Guides
• Crime & Punishment
• Current Events: Law
• Government
• US Government Info 

Text.

"Any person subject to this chapter who--

(1) resists apprehension;

(2) flees from apprehension;

(3) breaks arrest; or

(4) escapes from custody or confinement;

shall be punished as a court-martial may direct."

Elements.

(1) Resisting apprehension.:

(a) That a certain person attempted to apprehend the accused;

(b) That said person was authorized to apprehend the accused; and

(c) That the accused actively resisted the apprehension.

(2) Flight from apprehension.:

(a) That a certain person attempted to apprehend the accused;

(b) That said person was authorized to apprehend the accused; and

(c) That the accused fled from the apprehension.

(3) Breaking arrest.:

(a) That a certain person ordered the accused into arrest;

(b) That said person was authorized to order the accused into arrest; and

(c) That the accused went beyond the limits of arrest before being released from that arrest by proper authority.

(4) Escape from custody.:

(a) That a certain person apprehended the accused;

(b) That said person was authorized to apprehend the accused; and

(c) That the accused freed himself or herself from custody before being released by proper authority.

(5) Escape from confinement.:

(a) That a certain person ordered the accused into confinement;

(b) That said person was authorized to order the accused into confinement; and

(c) That the accused freed himself or herself from confinement before being released by proper authority.

Note: If the escape was post-trial confinement, add the following element

(d) That the confinement was the result of a court-martial conviction.

Explanation.

(1) Resisting apprehension.:

(a) Apprehension. Apprehension is the taking of a person into custody. See R.C.M. 302.

(b) Authority to apprehend. See R.C.M. 302(b) concerning who may apprehend. Whether the status of a person authorized that person to apprehend the accused is a question of law to be decided by the military judge. Whether the person who attempted to make an apprehension had such a status is a question of fact to be decided by the factfinder.

(c) Nature of the resistance. The resistance must be active, such as assaulting the person attempting to apprehend. Mere words of opposition, argument, or abuse, and attempts to escape from custody after the apprehension is complete, do not constitute the offense of resisting apprehension although they may constitute other offenses.

(d) Mistake. It is a defense that the accused held a reasonable belief that the person attempting to apprehend did not have authority to do so. However, the accused's belief at the time that no basis exists for the apprehension is not a defense.

(e) Illegal apprehension. A person may not be convicted of resisting apprehension if the attempted apprehension is illegal, but may be convicted of other offenses, such as assault, depending on all the circumstances. An attempted apprehension by a person authorized to apprehend is presumed to be legal in the absence of evidence to the contrary. Ordinarily the legality of an apprehension is a question of law to be decided by the military judge.

(2) Flight from apprehension.: The flight must be active, such as running or driving away.

(3) Breaking arrest.:

(a) Arrest. There are two types of arrest: pretrial arrest under Article 9 (see R.C.M. 304) and arrest under Article 15 (see paragraph 5c.(3), Part V, MCM). This article prohibits breaking any arrest.

(b) Authority to order arrest. See R.C.M. 304(b) and paragraphs 2 and 5b, Part V, MCM concerning authority to order arrest.

(c) Nature of restraint imposed by arrest. In arrest, the restraint is moral restraint imposed by orders fixing the limits of arrest.

(d) Breaking. Breaking arrest is committed when the person in arrest infringes the limits set by orders. The reason for the infringement is immaterial. For example, innocence of the offense with respect to which an arrest may have been imposed is not a defense.

(e) Illegal arrest. A person may not be convicted of breaking arrest if the arrest is illegal. An arrest ordered by one authorized to do so is presumed to be legal in the absence of some evidence to the contrary. Ordinarily, the legality of an arrest is a question of law to be decided by the military judge.

(4) Escape from custody.:

(a) Custody. "Custody" is restraint of free locomotion imposed by lawful apprehension. The restraint may be physical or, once there has been a submission to apprehension or a forcible taking into custody, it may consist of control exercised in the presence of the prisoner by official acts or orders. Custody is temporary restraint intended to continue until other restraint (arrest, restriction, confinement) is imposed or the person is released.

(b) Authority to apprehend. See subparagraph (1)( b) above.

(c) Escape. For a discussion of escape, see subparagraph c(5)( c), below.

(d) Illegal custody. A person may not be convicted of this offense if the custody was illegal. An apprehension effected by one authorized to apprehend is presumed to be lawful in the absence of evidence to the contrary. Ordinarily, the legality of an apprehension is a question of law to be decided by the military judge.

(e) Correctional custody. See paragraph 70.

(5) Escape from confinement.:

(a) Confinement. Confinement is physical restraint imposed under R.C.M. 305, 1101, or paragraph 5b, Part V, MCM. For purposes of the element of post-trial confinement (subparagraph b(5)(d), above) and increased punishment therefrom (subparagraph e(4), below), the confinement must have been imposed pursuant to an adjudged sentence of a court-martial and not as a result of pretrial restraint or nonjudicial punishment.

(b) Authority to order confinement. See R.C.M. 304( b). 1101; and paragraphs 2 and 5b, Part V, MCM concerning who may order confinement.

(c) Escape. An escape may be either with or without force or artifice, and either with or without the consent of the custodian. However, where a prisoner is released by one with apparent authority to do so, the prisoner may not be convicted of escape from confinement. See also paragraph 20c(1)(b). Any completed casting off of the restraint of confinement, before release by proper authority, is an escape, and lack of effectiveness of the restraint imposed is immaterial. An escape is not complete until the prisoner is momentarily free from the restraint. If the movement toward escape is opposed, or before it is completed, an immediate pursuit follows, there is no escape until opposition is overcome or pursuit is eluded.

(d) Status when temporarily outside confinement facility. A prisoner who is temporarily escorted outside a confinement facility for a work detail or other reason by a guard, who has both the duty and means to prevent that prisoner from escaping, remains in confinement.

(e) Legality of confinement. A person may not be convicted of escape from confinement if the confinement is illegal. Confinement ordered by one authorized to do so is presumed to be lawful in the absence of evidence to the contrary. Ordinarily, the legality of confinement is a question of law to be decided by the military judge.

Lesser included offenses.

(1) Resisting apprehension.:

Article 128--assault; assault consummated by a battery

(2) Breaking arrest.:

(a) Article 134--breaking restriction

(b) Article 80--attempts

(3) Escape from custody.:

Article 80--attempts

(4) Escape from confinement.:

Article 80--attempts

Maximum punishment.

(1) Resisting apprehension.: Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year.

(2) Flight from apprehension.: Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year.

(3) Breaking arrest.: Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months.

(4) Escape from custody, pretrial confinement, or confinement on bread and water or diminished rations imposed pursuant to Article 15.: Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year.

(5) Escape from post-trial confinement.: Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years.

Next Article > Article 96—Releasing prisoner without proper authority >

Above Information from Manual for Court Martial, 2002, Chapter 4, Paragraph 19

 

Subscribe to the Newsletter
Name
Email

Discuss in my forum

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.