the United Kingdom searching for new insecticides came across compounds
that were extremely toxic to humans. The British shared the discovery
with the U.S. Army in 1953 and a systematic investigation of these
new compounds was begun at Edgewood. The Army discovered they were
more persistent and much more toxic than the G-series agents. In 1955,
these compounds were designated V-series agents for “venomous.” VX
is an oily liquid that is clear, odorless and tasteless. It can be
amber colored and similar in appearance to motor oil.
Signs and Symptoms
overexposure may occur within minutes or hours, depending upon the
dose. They include: miosis (constriction of pupils) and visual effects,
headaches and pressure sensation, runny nose and nasal congestion,
salivation, tightness in the chest, nausea, vomiting, giddiness, anxiety,
difficulty in thinking, difficulty sleeping, nightmares, muscle twitches,
tremors, weakness, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, involuntary urination
and defecation. Severe exposure symptoms progress to convulsions and
breath until respiratory protective mask is donned. If severe signs
of agent exposure appear (chest tightens, pupil constriction, incoordination,
etc.), immediately administer, in rapid succession, all three Nerve
Agent Antidote Kit(s), Mark I injectors (or atropine if directed
by a physician). Injections using the Mark I kit injectors may be
repeated at 5 to 20 minute intervals if signs and symptoms are progressing
until three series of injections have been administered. No more
injections will be given unless directed by medical personnel. In
addition, a record will be maintained of all injections given. If
breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. Mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation should be used when mask-bag or oxygen delivery'systems
are not available. Do not use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when facial
contamination exists. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen.
Seek medical attention Immediately.
Contact: Immediately flush eyes with water for 10-15
minutes, then don respiratory protective mask. Although miosis
(pinpointing of the pupils) may be an early sign of agent exposure,
an injection will not be administered when miosis is the only
sign present. Instead, the individual will be taken Immediately
to a medical treatment facility for observation.
Contact: Don respiratory protective mask and remove
contaminated clothing. Immediately wash contaminated skin with
copious amounts of soap and water, 10% sodium carbonate solution,
or 5% liquid household bleach. Rinse well with water to remove
excess decontaminant. Administer nerve agent antidote kit, Mark
I, only if local sweating and muscular twitching symptoms are
observed. Seek medical attention Immediately.
not induce vomiting. First symptoms are likely to be gastrointestinal.
Immediately administer Nerve Agent Antidote Kit, Mark I. Seek medical
Above Information Courtesy
of United States Army